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12 Tote bei Lawine im Himalaya
18. April 2014: Schwerstes Bergsteigerunglück in der Geschichte des Mount Everest
Ende April beginnt die Bergsteigersaison am Himalaya. Hunderte Bergsteiger warten im Basiscamp des Mount Everest auf den Aufstieg, für den sie erhebliche Summen bezahlen. Die Besteigung des höchsten Berges der Welt ist noch immer eine Herausforderung und steht bei vielen Bergsteigern auf der Liste der Dinge, die sie unbedingt erleben möchten. Dabei werden sie von den nepalesischen Sherpas unterstützt. Für die einheimischen Sherpas stellen zahlungskräftige Bergsteiger häufig die einzige Einnahmequelle dar, denn Nepal gehört zu den 20 ärmsten Ländern der Erde. Mindestens zwölf von ihnen hat dieses Engagement am Karfreitag 2014 das Leben gekostet.
Eine Lawine ging gegen 6:30 Ortszeit oberhalb des Basiscamps ab, das sich auf 5.346 Metern Höhe befindet. Die Schneemassen sollen sich in ca. 5.800 Metern Höhe, unterhalb von Camp 2, gelöst haben. Das Gebiet wird als „Popcorn Field“ bezeichnet. Es führt zum berüchtigten Khumbu-Eisfall, an dem schon viele Bergsteiger gescheitert sind. Dort sei die Lawine losgebrochen. Die Lawine riss eine Gruppe von nepalesischen Bergsteigern mit sich, die auf dem Weg zum Camp 1 waren. 12 Bergführer konnten nur tot geborgen werden, 7 weitere wurden zum Teil schwer verletzt mit Helikoptern nach Kathmandu und Solukhumbu gebracht. Es werden aber noch mehrere Bergsteiger vermisst, die genaue Zahl ist derzeit unklar, so Dipendra Poudel vom nepalesischen Tourismusministerium kurz nach dem Unglück. Inzwischen hat der Sprecher des Tourismusministeriums, Krishna Lamsal, die Anzahl der Vermissten mit 5 beziffert. Es ist zu befürchten, dass die Zahl der Todesopfer sich noch erhöhen wird.
Zahlreiche Soldaten und Polizisten sowie weitere Bergführer aus der Region sind aufgestiegen, um nach Überlebenden zu suchen. Am Freitagnachmittag musste die Suche wegen schlechten Wetters und Starkwinden jedoch zunächst eingestellt werden. Mindestens eine Leiche konnte noch nicht geborgen werden, teilte Lakpa Norbu Sherpa, einer der Rettungskräfte, der Zeitung „Kantipur“ mit. Oberhalb der Unglücksstelle sitzen beinahe 100 Träger und Sherpas fest, die derzeit nicht absteigen können.
Die Sherpas bereiten die Route für die zahlende Kundschaft vor, indem sie an den schwierigsten Stellen Kletterseile bzw. Fixseile anbringen. An manchen Stellen werden sogar Leitern montiert. Die Bergführer sind bereits wochenlang vor dem Saisonstart unterwegs. Sie steigen mehrmals auf und ab, um die Routen zu befestigen und die Lager einzurichten. Ab Ende April oder Anfang Mai führen sie dann die Teams nach oben, wobei die Sherpas auch das Gepäck der Kunden nach oben tragen. Auch die nun verunglückten Bergsteiger waren unterwegs, um für fünf große Expeditionsgruppen Nahrungsmittel im Camp 1 einzulagern.
Die erfahrenen Bergführer können die Risiken am Mount Everest in der Regel gut einschätzen. Die größten Unwägbarkeiten betreffen stets das Wetter. In den letzten Tagen hatte es nach Angaben lokaler Medien in der Region heftig geschneit. Die Bergführer unterliegen einerseits dem Druck, die Routen fristgerecht für die bereits wartenden Teams zu präparieren, sie müssen andererseits ständig mit plötzlichen Wetterumschwüngen oder Lawinen rechnen, die um diese Jahreszeit besonders häufig sind. So kommt es immer wieder zu kritischen Situationen.
Laut „Himalaya Times“ dürfen in diesem Jahr 31 Teams mit insgesamt 334 Bergsteigern den Aufstieg zum mit 8.848 Metern höchsten Gipfel der Erde angehen – wesentlich weniger als in den Vorjahren. Die meisten erfolgreichen Besteigungen finden im Mai statt. Seit der Erstbesteigung im Jahre 1953 durch Tenzing Norgay und Sir Edmund Hillary haben mehr als 4.000 Menschen den Mount Everest erklommen. Die Besteigung des Mount Everest ist nach wie vor eine Leistung, für die Training und bergsteigerische Erfahrung erforderlich sind. Durch die kundige Hilfe der Sherpas ist die Expedition aber auch für nicht professionelle Bergsteiger möglich geworden – sofern sie den Obolus zu zahlen bereit sind.
Der Berg hat aber auch mehr als 400 Menschen das Leben gekostet. Manche Leichen konnten bis heute nicht geborgen werden. Eines der schwersten Unglücke ereignete sich 1996, als ein Schnee- und Eissturm acht Bergsteiger tötete. Das Desaster ist durch das Buch „Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. Everest Disaster“ von Jon Krakauer bekannt geworden, der das Unglück am Berg miterlebt hatte (die deutsche Übersetzung hat den Titel „In eisige Höhen. Das Drama am Mount Everest“).
Die nepalesischen Ministerien haben eine Reihe von Maßnahmen angekündigt, die die Auswüchse des Bergsteigertourismus im Himalaya unter Kontrolle bringen sollen. Die Anzahl der „Permits“ wurde deutlich reduziert. Zur Beschleunigung von Rettungseinsätzen sollen während der gesamten Bergsteigersaison im Frühjahr Sicherheitsbeauftragte im 5.300 Meter hohen Basislager stationiert werden. Ob diese Sicherheitsbeauftragten bei dem Unglück vom 18. April bereits vor Ort waren, wurde nicht bekannt.
Durch die vielen Expeditionen sind beträchtliche Teile des Massivs auch mit Müll übersät, den die Bergsteiger zurück gelassen haben. Die Bergsteiger werden nun verpflichtet, ihren Müll beim Abstieg wieder mit zu nehmen. Wer weniger als 8 kg Müll im Basislager abgibt, muss Strafe zahlen. Ob diese Maßnahmen den gewünschten Erfolg nach sich ziehen, bleibt abzuwarten. Solange das Interesse der zahlungswilligen Kundschaft am Aufstieg auf das „Dach der Welt“ so groß bleibt, werden Unglücke wie das vom 18. April 2014 nicht zu verhindern sein.
Avalanche Survival Stories
Avalanches have been the cause of many deaths over the years. With the many deaths, however, have come quite a few survivors as well. There are a lot of avalanche survivor stories that the world has come to appreciate and love due to their happy endings. This article will be making one of those known.
The avalanche survivors of Utah
On the 11th of January, 2014 this year, Matt Morgan had the highly unpleasant experience of being caught in an avalanche that could have led to his death if it weren’t for his friends.
Matt, a man from Farmington, was snowmobiling down a hill in Snow Slide Canyon in Idaho, very close to the Utah border, that he had already ridden through many times before. Although experienced, Matt was suddenly surprised by seeing snow rush past his side-line vision. All of a sudden, his snowmobile lost stability and he blacked out at once. It took Matt’s friends about 10 minutes to dig him out of the 2 feet of snow that had covered him. Matt was rushed to the hospital. After his treatment, he thanked his friends and credited both, his friend’s rescue training and the equipment used for saving his life.
“I feel extremely blessed” Morgan added. He made his statement on the following Wednesday sitting in his wheelchair in the McKay-Dee Hospital. Although he is now safe and on the mend, he broke his arm as well as both femurs in the slide and thus will need quite some time to fully recover from the accident.
“Justin Hilderth” was the one who first saw Matt as he was cutting across the hill and going down. He, was the one who called out to Matt trying to warn him, who unfortunately wasn’t able to hear him over the screaming engine of the snowmobile. Justin continued that he felt very helpless as he saw Matt go down into the slide. He called to the others and when they waited to see if he would come up but. He didn’t. They quickly gathered all their tools to get him out of there while Justin went up the hill to call for help.
The very first thing Matt said he remembers is his friends calling his name and brushing his face off.
An average of 4 people are killed by avalanches in Utah per year and are mostly triggered by humans.
A different story that was picked by CNN is featured in the video below.
Prominent Avalanche Victims
Avalanches are one of the most disastrous of all natural disasters. With so much noise about climate change, people have had to deal first hand with some of the damaging effects that these avalanches have caused. Below are some prominent avalanche victims who have died in consequence of being caught.
- Mieczysław Karłowicz died at the age of 32 at Tatra Mountains on the 2nd of August, 1909 in Poland – Slovakia border.
- Giacinto Sertorelli died at the age of 22 at Germisch, Bavaria on the 26th of January, 1938 in Germany.
- James Palmer-Tomkinson died at the age of 36 at Klosters, Graubünden on the 7th of January, 1952 in Switzerland.
- John Semmelink died at the age of 20 at Germisch, Bavaria on the 7th of February, 1959 in West Germany.
- Toni Mark died at the age of 24 at Rottach-Egern, Bavaria on the 7th of March, 1959 in West Germany.
- Ross Milne died at the age of 19 at Patscherkofel, Innsbruck, Tyrol on the 25th of January, 1964 in Austria.
- Buddy Werner died at the age of 28 at St. Moritz on the 12th of April, 1964 in Switzerland.
- Barbara Henneberger died at the age of 23 at Las Trais Fluors slope, St. Moritz on the 12th of April, 1964 in Switzerland.
- Michel Bozon died at the age of 20 in Megève in Haute-Savoie on the 23rd of January, 1970 in France.
- Michael Kennedy died at the age of 39 in Aspen, Colorado on the 31st of December, 1997 in the United States of America.
- Sonny Bono died at the age of 62 in Heavenly, Nevada on the 5th of January, 1998 in the United States of America.
- Doak Walker died at the age of 71 in Steamboat, Colorado on the 30th January, 1998 in the United States.
- Michel Trudeau died at the age of 23 in British Columbia on the 13th of November, 1998 in Canada.
- Régine Cavagnoud died at the age of 31 in Innsbruck, Tyrol on the 31st of October, 2001 in Austria.
- Prince Friso of Orange-Nassau died at the age of 44 in Lech, Vorarlberg on the 17th February, 2012 in Austria.
- Jonathan Stevens died at the age of 23 in French Alps on the 26th of February, 2012.
- David Coe died at the age of 58 in Aspen, Colorado on the 21st of January, 2013 in the United States.
Facts you need to know about avalanches:
- Slab avalanches are very deadly.
- Every single year, avalanches cause the deaths of more than 150 people all over the world.
- In 90% of avalanche accidents, the victims themselves caused the snow slides leading to the accident.
- The human body will generally sink into the snow because it is about three times dense as avalanche debris. You can be safe by clearing air space for breathing when the slide slows down. Then punch your hand upwards. The debris becomes hard as concrete once the slide stops.
- Unlike Hollywood suggests, noise is rarely the cause of an avalanche. Avalanches can be caused by a steep slope, a trigger and a weak snow cover.
- Avalanches are triggered when the weight of an individual exceeds just the right amount to crumple the weak layer of snow beyond the surface.
- The risk of an avalanche most often peaks 24 hours after snowfall of 12 inches or higher.
- Any slope you see in your neighborhood that you suspect might produce an avalanche will eventually do so given the right conditions – this is why you always need to be careful. Should you hear cracking and whooping sounds, you need to be alarmed.
- The survival rate of a person who is saved within 18 minutes of an avalanche is higher than 91%. However, the chance of survival decreases to 34% when rescued between 19 and 40 minutes.
- Lack of oxygen is the primary cause of death following avalanche disasters
How To Survive an Avalanche
Seven tips for survival
Avalanches can occur at any time of the year. In areas without snow and temperatures above 0°C or 32°F, avalanches appear in form of a landslide, frequently after heavy rains. These landslides are often the most deadly of avalanches. This article is intended as a guide for survival for snow avalanches.
If you are in the mountains with families or friends, please make sure that all attendees are informed of the tips given here, and that all of them are equipped properly if there is any danger of getting caught in an avalanche. Just imagine you are enjoying the scenery of the mountain air and fresh powder snow when all of a sudden, the ground splits from under you. You will need to know exactly how to behave and also you need to be fast, or you will be deeply buried in snow in less than 60 seconds.
There are a lot of steps that you can take in order to prevent triggering avalanches. Most importantly, make sure you locate the local avalanche warnings, whether on the internet, the local skiing schools, or the responsible authorities. Information about the probability and danger of avalanches is always available, usually combined with advice. Observe it! When warned to stay out of an area, please stay out. This is the best survival tip of all.
However, avalanches also occur without warning and completely unexpectedly. If you end up getting caught in a disastrous situation, below is what you need to do.
2. How to react in the first few seconds of the avalanche
Try to jump up slope. Many victims of avalanches trigger the avalanche themselves, and the avalanche starts exactly under their feet. When this happens, make sure you react quickly. A quick and decisive jump up slope above the crack line may actually save your life, with the avalanche going downhill just underneath you. While avalanches take place very quickly, there is a short moment when the first crack appears and widens before the first sheet of snow starts its descent. These few seconds can save your life if you are able to react quickly.
3. Try to move to the avalanches side
No matter where you find yourself on the avalanche – whether it begins under or above you make sure you try your best to get to one side of the avalanche. Do not be indecisive. Try to move as quickly as you can and maneuver yourself as far to the side as possible. If the disaster starts above your position, the chances that you might get out of its way before it gets to you is quite high. The snow will move very fast close to the center of the flow but much slower on the edges. In addition, the snow masses accumulate in the center of the slide so that the danger of being buried deeply is greatest there.
4. Get rid of heavy equipment – with a few exceptions
The more light weighted you are, the greater the chance of staying near the surface of the snow masses. This is why holding on to heavy equipment will be a very big disadvantage. Make sure you let go of all poles, backpack or any other heavy tools you have with you. This helps to keep you on the surface of the snow and prevents you from sinking in. However, below are some things to know;
- Make sure you do not let go of the important survival equipment that you need to be carrying along with you such as snow shovels, probe, and transceivers – this equipment will be needed when you end up buried by the snow. Especially the transceiver belongs in your clothing, not in your backpack.
- Also, if you have a few moments before the avalanche reaches you, open the backpack. It will probably empty during its descent, leaving a trace on its – and most likely your – path. This will help rescuers to find you more easily when they come to search for you later.
5. Try holding on to something strong.
If it is impossible for you to get out of the avalanche’s way, do your best to get a hold of something like a strong tree, a boulder, a ski lift pole, or similar. If you are close to the edge of avalanche or if it is a small avalanche, you might be able to stay on the surface until the snow is able to pass by. Even if you were taken away from the object you get a hold of, if you are capable of delaying your descent downhill even by a few seconds, the chances of you not being killed or buried by snow increase significantly. Every second counts. However, bear it in mind that a strong avalanche can carry away very large trees and rocks.
6. Begin to “swim”
This tip is very important to assist you in staying close to the surface of the snow. The body of every human being is a lot denser than snow. You will sink as you are taken downhill. Try as much as you can to stay on top or afloat. This can be achieved by kicking your feet and thrashing your arms as if you were swimming. Detailed advice:
• Swimming needs to be done on your back so that your face will be turned towards the surface, giving you the best opportunity of getting more air faster when you end up buried.
• Swimming uphill is better. When you swim uphill, you will get closer to the surface of the snow.
7. How to Survive If You Get Buried in the Snow
1. Start by making sure one arm of yours is directly above the head. Make sure the arm is pointed directly to the surface of the snow and hopefully sticking outside of the snow cover. If you do this, people will be able to find you easily, greatly increasing your chances of being saved. This is one of the best ways rescuers are able to help or save many avalanche victims. You can spit out some saliva and allow it to trickle down in order to help you find out exactly which way is up.
2. Try to dig out a pocket around your face. As soon as the avalanche stops, all the snow will start to settle in very quickly, often becoming as hard as concrete. If you are buried deeper than one foot when it starts to set in, getting out on your own can be quite hard or prove to be impossible, especially if you have suffered an injury. All you can do in such a situation is to maximize the available air and hold on until people help to dig you out.
3. Your best bet to survive is the presence of a partner who is trained to react in the right way and who will dig you out.
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Background on Google’s Anti-Spam Team
Google is one of the most popular online search engines available today. They put the right measures in place to make sure only the best websites appear in their search results. If an article is based off another article, it is mostly better for it to be linked to the original article on the website of the original author. This is because; it helps the Google anti-spam team to know which article was published first even when there are copies on other websites. This also helps to give you the very best page rankings.
The Google anti-spam team was set up to give authors credit for the creation of their articles and to no one else. The Google anti-spam team therefore avoids confusion with duplicates on different websites which interfering with the ranking process. So, if the copy is linked to the original article source there is a guarantee that the original will have high PageRank compared to duplicates and copies all over the internet. This is what makes it possible for Google to trace all duplicated content and know which one is original and which one is not.
Spammed content on websites does not help Google or it’s users in any way because it complicates search results and makes it difficult for the original websites to be placed on the top of the result stack.
There are also some guidelines and recommendations given for all webmasters to be able to understand what they need to do in order to stay away from penalties that mostly result from article or content duplication. The ranking of a website on Google search engines always varies and because these ranking rules change from day to day. It is only normal that webmasters are more cautious about how they go about content creation and how they do their backlinking. A lot of mistakes are made by webmasters and this is why they need to sit down and relax to understand where Google is coming from. The more Google is understood by webmasters, the better for everyone else.
For further insight, watch the talk given by Google’s very own Matt Cutts on this topic below.